(AS) Film Industry Production Research

Task 1:

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Director – The investors will want to know about the director to tell if he has been successful in the past. If he has then the investors hope he will be able to repeat this success with their film. Big name directors such as Spielberg and Christopher Nolan will need a greater budget as they’re expected to produce some on screen art.

Writer – Like the director they will want to review there history, see what they have written and see online whether they have created good stories or ones that turned out to be a flop. The investors may want to meet up with him personally to hear a preview of the story and see if they like it or not.

Producer – They will want to see whether the producer has made any great films over the past, to learn whether there money will be in safe hands. This will of course help the situation if they have produced a film that the investors really enjoyed, as persuading them will be far less of a challenge.

Cast – If the cast for the planned film has many big names within it then this would encourage them to invest as they imagine it would guaruntee views with them featuring. If the cast are also big on social media then this will be an added extra as they will be able to promote for free.

Genre – If the film is set to be a mainstream genre that will guaruntee success than they may be tempted to invest. These will include action/horror/sci-fi and more; however if the genre is not used very much in mainstream films than the investors may think twice about handing over the money. Checking this will be easier than ever using sites such as IMDB to check on the lastest statistics for the film and TV industry.

Sequel Potential – If the film sounds successful and has an open story that has the potential for a second part, than this will encourage investors. They will be able to carry over their part of the investment from the initial film, with hope that it will be as successful as the first.

Location – If the film is set exotic locations where the investors can attend filming than this may persuade investment. If they said that they were planning to film in somewhere where there is poverty, bad housing and rebellious gangs than this would put off investment. They will also want to know the locations to have a rough idea as to how much they will spend on travel etc. If all is filmed on a green screen than this would reduce the cost, but could reduce the quality of the film if done badly.

SFX – if the film is set to use amazing special effects that would leave the audience astonished than this would encourage investment. For this section your films could potentially win awards for a jawdrapping moment.

Rating (BBFC)  – If the film is aiming to achieve a lower BBFC rating than this will encourage investment as we know that lower ratings produce a greater profit becuase a much larger audience is available. If they recieve an 18 rating than this would possibly prevent investment as the statistics show the do worse in cinema and DVD.

USP – If the film has a unique selling point than this would have a chance of attracting investors. This point of course depends on the USP itself and how an audience would recieve it.

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Skyfall vs Shifty

Skyfall – A film that is slotting into a very succesful series and franchise, 007. There is a massive guarunteed audience, especially in the UK as it’s almost guarunteed the majority of people will watch it and talk about it for weeks. The franchise is also very well known abroad, with it being more of a brand than a film series. You also have eyes and ears constantly on you with the addition of the song to take over the radio.

Shifty – a film that will have very little/no guaruntee of being a success. This would most likely have been planned to be a one off film. The actors were’nt very well known, although one of them now is (Riz Ahmed – Rogue One, Jason Bourne), which would’nt have attracted an audience. They were purely relying on the public to have a little faith in going to see/buy a film that they had never heard of.

Task 2:


New Media Technologies – New media is used to describe content made available using different forms of electronic communication made possible through the use of computer technology. Generally, the phrase new media describes content available on-demand through the Internet. This content can be viewed on any device and provides a way for people to interact with the content in real-time with the inclusion of user comments and making it easy for people to share the content online and in social with friends and co-workers.

Media Convergence – Media convergence is the interlinking of computing and other information technologies, media content, media companies and communication networks. Media convergence is used to market and exhibit media through other platforms.

Technological Convergence – technological convergence is the linking of technologies to the point where they will all do the same thing. For instance not long ago we had cameras, radios and the internet on seperate platforms, but now we have all of them on one smart phone. We are converging them also by linking them towards eachother, having apps that save memory and carry over our tasks.

Synergy – synergy is where conglomerates use their other companies that they own to produce and promote new creations. For example a media conglomerate may own a toy store, but they may also own a TV channel where they can promote this. They are effectively doing this for free as the money is heading towards another company in the system.

Cross Media Convergence – is where companies in one section of media may cooperate with another section. For example the gaming sector may combine with the music industry to produce great non-diegetic sounds to partner a games story (The Last of Us).

Task 3:

Production PPT

Completed in my Book

Task 4:


Media Ownership – Concentration of media ownership (also known as media consolidation or media convergence) is a process whereby progressively fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media.

Horizontal and Vertical Intergration – A horizontal integration consists of companies that acquire a similar company in the same industry, while a vertical integration consists of companies that acquire a company that operates either before or after the acquiring company in the production process.

Piracy and Marketing – 1) the unauthorized use or reproduction of another’s work. 2) the action or business of promoting and selling products or services, including market research and advertising.

Task 5:





BBFC Talk Notes

This Film is Not Yet Rated (Documentary about foreign classification, especially on American film)

Everything that has a moving image can be age regulated.

Half of the distributors submit with an age rating request, this makes it “easier” for them to regulate as they know there target audience and can regualate upon these instructions.

Food Clip:

  • Dish called Sex on The Beach
  • Had suggestions towards sex with the dish including an edible condom, that featured juices. Handing a sexual reference.
  • Where would this clip be shown? This was part of a film doumentary.
  • What would the target audience be? Would a young child be viewing a food documentary anyway?
  • What rating would it get? – This is suitbale for a 12 to 15 rating as although it doesnt actually show a penis, it has strong sexuallised references. We did not expect to see this image in a food documentary, it wasnt expected when purchasing the film. The camera fully focused on the object, it wasnt just appearing in the shot out of focus.

About the BBFC:

  • Created in 1912 as The British Board of Film Censors
  • Independent of Government
  • Funded by fees of films when they require a classification.
  • Tarrifs – Student films are censored for less money along with carity films. Rather than big blockbuster films which are handed the full charge.
  • H is for Horrific – 1932
  • X is for Adult – Clip from Horror of Dracula (1958): Blood wasnt allowed to spill out of her chest and the screaming was considerably cut as well, just to achieve the highest rating. This shows the change in regualation to now.
  • Was handed a 15 on video in 1997
  • Was handed a 15 on DVD 2003
  • Jaws when it was re-released in cinema, was given a 12A rating as PG didnt seem to fit, they believed that with the full experience of cinema the film seemed considerably different and more dramatic.
  • Most films are downgraded in ratings, but some do increase with society changing their opinions/values on racism, animal cruelty etc.
  • When the X rating was removed there was either PG or 15 and 18 as the higher ratings, there was no in-between with the 12 and 12A. This meant either being harsh on a film or very liberal.

Why are The BBFC Still Relevant?

  • Films legally need a certificate, DVD’s and Blu-rays included.
  • Their online certificates are voluntary, to hand advice towards parents and children.
  • The BBFC have to cooperate with the Police on some occasions when films are not certificated. This can lead to jail sentences of around 6 months, depending on what the film contains, pornography etc.
  • BBFC Insight – To help guide parents on what they want there films to see, whether it controls violence or sex. Some parents may be more sensative towards cetain things.

Digital Services:

  • Streamed/Downloaded/VOD content: No legal obligation for classification (Except UK Music Videos) – But UK content law still applies.
  • 2008 – BBFC launced voluntary watch and rate digital licensing.
  • Over 30 VOD brands licensed to the use of BBFC information (eg: Netflix, iTunes, Amazon Video, Microsoft, Airline Content).
  • 85% of Parents agree on importance of consistent online and offline classification.

Examining Issues:

  • Story, Style, Treatment.
  • Audeince address, appeal and expectations.
  • Moral framework.
  • Artistic or educational merit.
  • Potential offensiveness.
  • Precedent.

Category vs Compulsory

Most are ‘Category Cuts’ where they look to achieve a specific rating.

Some are ‘Compulsory Cuts’ where scenes may need to be removed to achieve a certificate.

Local Councils can overturn certifictates if they want to, deciding whether their people are suitable for a certain film. Would it encourage crime for example in a certain council?


  • The Licensing Act
  • Video Recordings Act
  • The Obscene Publications Act
  • Human Rights Act
  • The Cinematograph Films (Animals) Act
  • Race Relations Act
  • Protection of Children Act


Press Regulation in the UK


Citizen Journalism – Publics contribution towards world news. Filming on mobile phones and uploading it to social media in seconds.

History of Newspapers:

On 5 July 2011 The Guardian revealed that in 2002 the News of the World had hacked into the mobile phone voicemail of the missing school girl Milly Dowler. It also alleged that messages were then deleted; leading friends and relatives of Milly to think, wrongly, that she might be alive. This revelation came amid mounting evidence that journalists at the News of the World had hacked into the phones of hundreds of individuals, including politicians and celebrities.

State licensing of the press was discontinued in England and Wales after 1694, and the traditional narrative of press history recounts its complex but positive contribution to freedom of expression and the public good thereafter. The principle that underpinned subsequent developments was expressed in the eighteenth century by Lord Blackstone.

These concerns were the backdrop to the first post-war Royal Commission on the Press, which reported in 1949. Its terms of reference combined the idea that the press should be ‘free’ with a desire to foster responsibility: ‘to safeguard the freedom of the press; to encourage the growth of a sense of public responsibility and public service amongst all engaged in the profession of journalism’.

The debates around Right of Reply and the Privacy Bills in the 1980s and 1990s pre-figure almost all those that have circulated around the Leveson inquiry, and have surfaced with depressing regularity since the 1947-9 Royal Commission. They always list the failings of the press and self-regulation and put the case for more effective, often statutory, regulation of standards. These concerns were always countered by assertions that statutory reform would be the ‘thin end of the wedge’, leading to state censorship of content; portraying the press as threatened by the monster of state control, waiting for its moment to pounce and devour hard won freedoms. In the end politicians have always supported the continuance of self-regulation, as they did in 1993.

The various incarnations of self-regulation – the GCP, the Press Council and the PCC – have failed because they lacked powers to impose effective sanctions on newspapers which flout industry-wide codes. They have lacked these powers because the proprietors, who have funded self-regulation, do not want their room for commercial manoeuvre limited by the effective regulation of standards, particularly at a time when circulation figures are tumbling. However the current debate is characterised by a degree of forgetfulness about recent history, one which implies that self-regulation has not been given a fair chance.

Lord Justice Leveson reported in November 2012, calling for the creation of an independent, self-regulatory body, governed by an independent board, without any influence from either industry or Government. He suggested the body be industry-funded, but that the majority of its members should be independent of it. It would set up a code to balance press freedom and the public interest, deal with complaints from individuals and groups, and have the power to direct the nature and placing of apologies. Serious breaches of the code could be punished by fines of up to 1 per cent of turnover, to a maximum of £1million.

PCC and The IPSO:

What does PCC stand for? Press Complaints Comission

Briefly explain what it was – The (PCC) was a voluntary regulatory body for British printed newspapers and magazines, consisting of representatives of the major publishers. The PCC closed on Monday 8 September 2014, and was replaced by the Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO), chaired by Sir Alan Moses.

What were the ‘codes of practice’? :

  • Accuracy
  • Opertunity to reply
  • Comment
  • Privacy
  • Listening devices
  • Hosppitals
  • Misenturpritation
  • Harassment
  • Payment for articles
  • Inrusions into grief or shock
  • Innocent relatives and friends
  • Interviewing or Photographing children
  • Children in sex cases
  • Victims of crime
  • Discrimiation
  • Financial Journalism
  • Comfidential sources

When did it act?

What things did it do?

Choose a real life case from the archives and briefly explain what happened and what the PCC did.

How effective do you think the PCC was at regulation?

Why was it closed down?

What is the IPSO?

What can it do?

Hard News vs Soft News

Hard News – London Terror Attacks.

Soft News – Jennifer Lopez changes her hair.