Press Regulation: Social Issues

Task One: The Leveson Enquiry

  • What was the Leveson Enquiry?

The Leveson inquiry is a judicial public inquiry into the culture, practices and ethics of the British press following the News International phone hacking scandal, chaired by Lord Justice Leveson, who was appointed in July 2011.

  • When did it take place?

Levesson appointed during 2011. A series of public hearings were held throughout 2011 and 2012. The actual phone hacking took place from the 90s onto 2006.

  • Who was involved?
  • Sir David Bell, former chairman of the Financial Times
  • Shami Chakrabarti, director of Liberty
  • Lord Currie, former Ofcom director
  • Elinor Goodman, former political editor of Channel 4 News
  • George Jones, former political editor of the Daily Telegraph
  • Sir Paul Scott-Lee QPM, former Chief Constable of West Midlands Police


  • What newspapers were involved?

The News of the World was a national red top newspaper published in the United Kingdom from 1843 to 2011. It was at one time the biggest-selling English-language newspaper in the world, and at closure still had one of the highest English-language circulations.

News International

  • What was the outcome?

Task 2: Why was The Leveson Enquiry Necessary?

  1.  It looked at the relationship between the press and the public, including phone-hacking and other potentially illegal behaviour, and at the relationships between the press and the police and the press and politicians.
  2. But the Hacked Off campaign, which represents many alleged victims of phone-hacking, says voluntary self-regulation has failed and its said that the Leveson proposals are the way forward.
  3. The Free Speech Network, which represents many editors and publishers, is vigorously opposed to any state involvement in press regulation. It says the press exists to scrutinise those in positions of power, and it could not do that if those it was scrutinising had authority over it.

Task 3: Ross Barkley article by Kelvin MacKenzie

  • “There is something about the lack of reflection in his eyes which makes me certain not only are the lights not on, there is definitely nobody at home.”
  • “I get a similar feeling when seeing a gorilla at the zoo. The physique is magnificent but it’s the eyes that tell the story.”
  • “So it came as no surprise to me that the Everton star copped a nasty right-hander in a nightclub for allegedly eyeing up an attractive young lady who, as they say, was “spoken for”.

Task 4: Roy Greenslade on the IPSO

Greensalde thinks that the IPSO isnt effective, just like the PCC. Also that the government are turning a blind eye. The IPSO have there own guidelines and were not involved in the phone hacking scandal, therefore they shouldnt have the same regulations as the others.

The Guardian, who self reguate, are effectively like studios cutting there own material to get a 12A certificate. They are avioding the regualtion in place and doing there own.

Task 5: Hacked Off

Question: What is Hacked Off?

Question: When was Hacked Off established?

Question: What does Hacked Off do?


Media Concepts – Question 1(B)

Question 1(B) requires candidates to select one production and evaluate it in relation to a media concept.

You will focus on the main production.

You will focus on:

  • Genre
  • Narrative
  • Representation
  • Media Language

What is Genre?

A genre is a category of media that we can associate with a film, music video, music, televisoin etc. These are identified by codes and conventions within the media that we associate with the genres (ICONOGRAPHY– Audio and Visual Elements).

Audiences have expectations from a genre so we can the link it to/compare it towards other types of media we consume.

Producers want a specific genre and it makes their product more MARKETABLE.

SUB-GENRE: A genre within the category of another genre that is easy to link.

  • Slasher Horror
  • Stalker Horror
  • Psychopath Horror

HYBRID GENRE: A genre that is combined with a different genre.

  • Action Horror
  • Action Comedy
  • Comedy Romance (Rom-Com)

Fictional Films are usually categorised by setting, theme and mood.

Another way of categorising film genres is by reviewing your target audience.


“Genre creates expectations that condition our responses. Genre sets-up hopes and promises and brings pleasure if these are furfilled” – Warren Buckland

“Genre is a recurring type or category of text, as defined by structural and thematic criteria” – David Duff

PROTAGONISTS (Main Character) vs ANTAGONISTS (Standard Character)





Lesson Tasks

  1. Compile a list of 8-10 similarities and 8-10 differences between the BBFC, PCC and IPSO.
  2. Produce a powerpoint presentation on two newspapers of your choice: Discuss their history, political beliefs, target audience, how many writers do they have and/or have any celebrity writers, controversies, notable features etc.

1. Similarities

  • Oppertunity to reply and interact with the organisation, hand positive or constructive feedback and send in any complaints.
  • Discrimination is not tollerated in the Press Complaints Comission and is also not allowed in the form of the BBFC. These rules now need to be applied becuase we are more multicultural then ever in the UK, therefore they have to represent everyone.
  • All the organisations have public guidelines.
  • Both are reliant on the publics participation, although is a small figure that get to cooperate.
  • Children are protected by both the BBFC and the PCC as they should be. Certian scenes will not be allowed to be shown in films if they have displayed violence against children. Just like in PEGI also, games such as Grand Theft Auto are not allowed to feature children or schools so you can’t create any disasters that may be applied in real life.

1. Differences:

  • Obviously the biggest difference would be that the BBFC are producing a real picture film that has the ability for someone to see what is going on first hand; but a newspaper needs a creative mind to picture a scene for an incident. Like with a text message it can be taken out of context; but when watching a film you are handed the message but also with expression, meaning it’s easier to understand the situation.