- Answer both questions A and B
- Question 1A – 30 Mins
- Question 1B – 30 Mins
- Question 2 – 60 Mins
- Choose 1 quetsion on regulation for Section B
TERMINOLOGY – (10 Marks) Key Terms on Regualtion for the BBFC/IPSO/PCC
EXAMPLES – (20 Marks) Key Dates, Events and Case Study (Films and Articles) in the history of the BBFC and the IPSO/PCC
ANALYSIS – (20 Marks) Similarities and Differnces between the BBFC and PCC/IPSO
What is Media Language?
Definition: ‘Media Language’ does not refer towards words/conversation that is being spoken by a person on screen, but the language that the scene is showing. This would mean if you watched a scene on mute volume you would still roughly be able to tell what is being spoken; this would be done via visual analysis, using mise-en-scene.
Example: Screaming and panic in voices would be shown by a faster shot rate and having close up shots of actors faces.
Definition: Semiotics (Meaning the study of signs) is used to describe how a meaning is made on screen. This is using DENOTATION. A good way to rememer this is imagine setiotics being the association game.
Implicit Symbols: Signs that have a clear and understood meaning. Red = Stop, Smoke = Fire etc.
Iconic Signs: Signs that are made to appear exactly like the item/action itself. Understood wherever and by whoever, Male and Female signs, Fire Hazard sign.
Indexical Signs: They act by indirectly pointing you/suggesting what they mean. They act as clues to our existing knowledge.
Signs in my genre (Narrative Music Video):
- No Singing/Lip Syncing
- Changes of scenery
- Focusing on one character
- Cinematic/Establishing shots
- Using media techniques to create emotion
Signs in my production:
- Balaclava = Mask
- Chain = Hold on to something
- Fire = Heat
- Embers = Dying fire
Theorist: Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 – 1913) Signifier and signified.
Signifier: The physical form of the sign, a smile.
Signified: The meaning of the sign, happiness or laughter.
Referent: What is the real feeling of happiness.
Gossip Girl Final – “Dan is Gossip Girl”:
Main characters cuts in 0:38 – 11
Maid character cuts in 0:38 – 1
Audiences and Institutions
LO: To understand how cross media convergence is important to the film industry.
Examples of Cross Media Convergence in Skyfall and Shifty:
Skyfall (Cross Media Convergence):
- Heineken (Alchol) Deal worth £28M (Covered one third of the whole films budget of £93.7M)
- Sony (Technology) – Crossing film with technology to reach new audience.
- Tom Ford (Tailored Suits) – Owners of the suits would want to see how they are represented.
- Omega Watches (Seamaster)
- Coca Cola Zero
- 007 Fragrance
Skyfall (‘Out Of Home’ Advertising):
- London 2012 Olympics
- Coke Zero Advertisements
Shifty (‘Out Of Home’ Advertising):
- Illegally Placing Posters
UK Film Council – The UK Film council was set up by the Labour party as a non-departmental PUBLIC BODY in 2000. The Purpose was to develop and promote the film industry within the UK. Along with BBC Films and Film4, the Film council was the main port of call for films to get themselves off of the ground. The council around recieved around £15M funding per year. Funded by the NATIONAL LOTTERY it channeled about £160M into more than than 900 films over it’s last 10 years (Including Bend it Like Beckham, This is England etc).
BFI (British Film Institute) – the UK Film Coouncil closed in April 2011. The BFI has taken over its core functions: distributions of lottery funding; production; supporting distribution and exhibition; certification of UK films; research etc.
BFI increased their lottery funding by 20% from £15M to £18M.
Looking For Eric (2009) (Featuring Eric Cantona, formed Man Utd and French national Footballer) – is a good example of different ways to promote films differently for different countiries.
Digital Is The Future:
The digitalisation of film makes it cheaper to produce, distribute and exhibit. Independent film makers can produce larger numbers of prints at a smaller cost, therefore they will not lose as much money if the cost of the film does not attract such a large audience. For Shifty, the cinema exhibition was mainly an advertsing method.
Reasons for the PCC and IPSO:
- Without the regulators we would have no regulation, or a government controlled press.
- We could have a biased press.
- It unifies the nation, by not being allowed to
Reasons against the PCC and IPSO:
- Stops people expressing their true opinions.
How effective do you think the PCC and IPSO are in regulating the Press?
Similarities and Differences betwenn the two regulators in how they operate:
List of The UK’s most popluar newspapers:
- The Sun (Tabliod) (RW) (Conservative)
- The Daily Mirror (Tabliod) (LW) (Labour)
- The Daily Express (Tabliod) (RW) (UKIP)
- The Guardian (Broadsheet) (LW) (Green Party)
- The Daily Telegraph (Broadsheet) (RW) (Conservative)
- The Times (Broadsheet) (RW) (Conservative)
- The Observer (Broadsheet) (LW) (Labour)
- Financial Times (Broadsheet) (Centeral) (Conservative)
- Daily Mail (Tabliod) (RW) (Conservative)
- The Sunday People (Tabliod) (LW) (Labour)
- Daily Star (Tabliod) (Centeral) (Impartial)
- Morning Star (Tabliod) (LW) (Labour)
Formats of Newspapers:
Tabloid – a newspaper which concentrates on sensational and lurid news, usually heavily illustrated – a short form or version; condensation; synopsis; summary. Physically smaller than broadsheets. Soft News
Broadsheet – a newspaper with a larger format, regarded as more serious and less sensationalist than tabloids. Hard News
LW – Liberal, Progressive values, multiculturalism. Opposition towards heirarchy and inequality.
RW – Conservative views, non-progressive values, white rule. Want a heirarchy and inequality.
Centeralism – have an equal view over disputes.
Regulating Newspapers in The UK
Press in The UK has been regulated since 1953, regulated by:
- Press Council
- Press Complaints Comission (PCC)
- Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO)
Press Council Summarised:
- Voluntary press organisation founded in 1953as the ‘General Council of The Press’ (It only officially became the Press Council in 1962).
- The aim was to maintain high standards in ethics of journalism, founded by newspaper proprietors.
- Published a series of guideline booklets: Contempt of Court (1967), Privacy (1972)
Press Complaints Comission Summarised (PCC):
- Set up in 1991, Succeding the Press Council.
- Set up a code of practice.
- Recieved lots of criticism and was nicknamed the toothless tiger as they couldn’t really enforce anything.
Independent Press Standards Oragnisation:
- Establsihed on Monday 8th of September 2014