(A2) Exam Revison

Section A:

  • Answer both questions A and B
  • Question 1A – 30 Mins
  • Question 1B – 30 Mins

Section B:

  • Question 2 – 60 Mins
  • Choose 1 quetsion on regulation for Section B

TERMINOLOGY – (10 Marks) Key Terms on Regualtion for the BBFC/IPSO/PCC

EXAMPLES – (20 Marks) Key Dates, Events and Case Study (Films and Articles) in the history of the BBFC and the IPSO/PCC

ANALYSIS – (20 Marks) Similarities and Differnces between the BBFC and PCC/IPSO


(A2) Section A – Question B

What is Media Language?

Definition: ‘Media Language’ does not refer towards words/conversation that is being spoken by a person on screen, but the language that the scene is showing. This would mean if you watched a scene on mute volume you would still roughly be able to tell what is being spoken; this would be done via visual analysis, using mise-en-scene.

Example: Screaming and panic in voices would be shown by a faster shot rate and having close up shots of actors faces.


Definition: Semiotics (Meaning the study of signs) is used to describe how a meaning is made on screen. This is using DENOTATION. A good way to rememer this is imagine setiotics being the association game.

Implicit Symbols: Signs that have a clear and understood meaning. Red = Stop, Smoke = Fire etc.

Iconic Signs: Signs that are made to appear exactly like the item/action itself. Understood wherever and by whoever, Male and Female signs, Fire Hazard sign.

Indexical Signs: They act by indirectly pointing you/suggesting what they mean. They act as clues to our existing knowledge.

Signs in my genre (Narrative Music Video):

  • No Singing/Lip Syncing
  • Changes of scenery
  • Focusing on one character
  • Cinematic/Establishing shots
  • Using media techniques to create emotion

Signs in my production:

  • Balaclava = Mask
  • Chain = Hold on to something
  • Fire = Heat
  • Embers = Dying fire


Theorist: Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 – 1913) Signifier and signified.

Signifier: The physical form of the sign, a smile.

Signified: The meaning of the sign, happiness or laughter.

Referent: What is the real feeling of happiness.



Section A/B: TV Drama and Representation (AS)

  • Don’t bother with an introduction and don’t explain what representation is.

How To Answer (A):

  • Read the question and undeline keywords
  • Make a plan for the answer
  • Use Keywords from the essay to keep it onto the point
  • Opening Paragraph: Begin to answer the question and then begin to discuss the technical areas using keywords (Camera shots, angles, Mise-en-scene, sound and editing). Cover all 4 areas of of the visual assessment.
  • Link technical features in creating representations.
  • Move on from description towards how the representations are constructed.
  • Analysis (20), Argument (20) and Use Of Terminology (10).
  • Don’t cover all points to the same amount of detail.

How To Answer (B):

  • Film Industry based.

This Film Is Not Yet Rated (MPAA)

  • The censors are “hidden American parents who therefore represent the view of other parents”.
  • The difference between a NC17 and an R rating is millions of dollars due to the availability of advertising.
  • “Studios don’t get treated differently to independent films”.
  • “They target independets becuase the regulations are created to suit studios”
  • Over 30 countries that have a film regualtion system, the MPAA is the only one who doesn’t state the identity of their censors.
  • 1941 Disney Strike
  • Big Studios control 95% of the film business, the conglomerates of these companies own 90% of all of America’s media.
  • The MPAA would rather have violence on screen than sex, not even “hardcore” sex.
  • “What are we training our kids for? Battle?”
  • MPAA don’t prioritise correctly. Directors say they would focus on rape and creating weak and vunerable women; not passionate sex.
  • Films with guns that are representing the US Forces have to pass regulation from the pentagon, which is always why American soldiers are made to look good and like heroes. Otherwise it wouldn’t pass their board.
  • The MPAA has an extreme system towards piracy, with massive fines and jail sentences. They are ultimately fighting against young boys who are trying to beat the system, but in reality this is one of their biggest audineces.
  • “I laugh sometimes when I hear about people pirating films becuase it’s such a small loss towards a massive company”.


Gossip Girl Final – “Dan is Gossip Girl”:


Main characters cuts in 0:38 – 11

Maid character cuts in 0:38 – 1

Audiences and Institutions

LO: To understand how cross media convergence is important to the film industry.

Examples of Cross Media Convergence in Skyfall and Shifty:

Skyfall (Cross Media Convergence):

  • Heineken (Alchol) Deal worth £28M (Covered one third of the whole films budget of £93.7M)
  • Sony (Technology) – Crossing film with technology to reach new audience.
  • Tom Ford (Tailored Suits) – Owners of the suits would want to see how they are represented.
  • Omega Watches (Seamaster)
  • Coca Cola Zero
  • 007 Fragrance

Skyfall (‘Out Of Home’ Advertising):

  • London 2012 Olympics
  • Coke Zero Advertisements
  • Posters

Shifty (‘Out Of Home’ Advertising):

  • Illegally Placing Posters

UK Film Council – The UK Film council was set up by the Labour party as a non-departmental PUBLIC BODY in 2000. The Purpose was to develop and promote the film industry within the UK. Along with BBC Films and Film4, the Film council was the main port of call for films to get themselves off of the ground. The council around recieved around £15M funding per year. Funded by the NATIONAL LOTTERY it channeled about £160M into more than than 900 films over it’s last 10 years (Including Bend it Like Beckham, This is England etc).

BFI (British Film Institute) – the UK Film Coouncil closed in April 2011. The BFI has taken over its core functions: distributions of lottery funding; production; supporting distribution and exhibition; certification of UK films; research etc.

BFI increased their lottery funding by 20% from £15M to £18M.

Looking For Eric (2009) (Featuring Eric Cantona, formed Man Utd and French national Footballer) – is a good example of different ways to promote films differently for different countiries.

Digital Is The Future:

The digitalisation of film makes it cheaper to produce, distribute and exhibit. Independent film makers can produce larger numbers of prints at a smaller cost, therefore they will not lose as much money if the cost of the film does not attract such a large audience. For Shifty, the cinema exhibition was mainly an advertsing method.



Arguments For/Against the PCC/IPSO/BBFC

Comparison Points:

Reasons for the PCC and IPSO:

  • Without the regulators we would have no regulation, or a government controlled press.
  • We could have a biased press.
  • It unifies the nation, by not being allowed to
  • 4

Reasons against the PCC and IPSO:

  • Stops people expressing their true opinions.
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4

How effective do you think the PCC and IPSO are in regulating the Press?

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8

Similarities and Differences betwenn the two regulators in how they operate:

Practice Questions

UK Newspaper Regulation

List of The UK’s most popluar newspapers:

  • The Sun (Tabliod) (RW) (Conservative)
  • The Daily Mirror (Tabliod) (LW) (Labour)
  • The Daily Express (Tabliod) (RW) (UKIP)
  • The Guardian (Broadsheet) (LW) (Green Party)
  • The Daily Telegraph (Broadsheet) (RW) (Conservative)
  • The Times (Broadsheet) (RW) (Conservative)
  • The Observer (Broadsheet) (LW) (Labour)
  • Financial Times (Broadsheet) (Centeral) (Conservative)
  • Daily Mail (Tabliod) (RW) (Conservative)
  • The Sunday People (Tabliod) (LW) (Labour)
  • Daily Star (Tabliod) (Centeral) (Impartial)
  • Morning Star (Tabliod) (LW) (Labour)

Formats of Newspapers:

Tabloid – a newspaper which concentrates on sensational and lurid news, usually heavily illustrated – a short form or version; condensation; synopsis; summary. Physically smaller than broadsheets. Soft News

Broadsheet – a newspaper with a larger format, regarded as more serious and less sensationalist than tabloids. Hard News

Political Perspectives

LW – Liberal, Progressive values, multiculturalism. Opposition towards heirarchy and inequality.

RW – Conservative views, non-progressive values, white rule. Want a heirarchy and inequality.

Centeralism – have an equal view over disputes.

Regulating Newspapers in The UK

Press in The UK has been regulated since 1953, regulated by:

  • Press Council
  • Press Complaints Comission (PCC)
  • Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO)

Press Council Summarised:

  • Voluntary press organisation founded in 1953as the ‘General Council of The Press’ (It only officially became the Press Council in 1962).
  • The aim was to maintain high standards in ethics of journalism, founded by newspaper proprietors.
  • Published a series of guideline booklets: Contempt of Court (1967), Privacy (1972)

Press Complaints Comission Summarised (PCC):

  • Set up in 1991, Succeding the Press Council.
  • Set up a code of practice.
  • Recieved lots of criticism and was nicknamed the toothless tiger as they couldn’t really enforce anything.

 Independent Press Standards Oragnisation:

  • Establsihed on Monday 8th of September 2014

Press Regulation: Social Issues

Task One: The Leveson Enquiry

  • What was the Leveson Enquiry?

The Leveson inquiry is a judicial public inquiry into the culture, practices and ethics of the British press following the News International phone hacking scandal, chaired by Lord Justice Leveson, who was appointed in July 2011.

  • When did it take place?

Levesson appointed during 2011. A series of public hearings were held throughout 2011 and 2012. The actual phone hacking took place from the 90s onto 2006.

  • Who was involved?
  • Sir David Bell, former chairman of the Financial Times
  • Shami Chakrabarti, director of Liberty
  • Lord Currie, former Ofcom director
  • Elinor Goodman, former political editor of Channel 4 News
  • George Jones, former political editor of the Daily Telegraph
  • Sir Paul Scott-Lee QPM, former Chief Constable of West Midlands Police


  • What newspapers were involved?

The News of the World was a national red top newspaper published in the United Kingdom from 1843 to 2011. It was at one time the biggest-selling English-language newspaper in the world, and at closure still had one of the highest English-language circulations.

News International

  • What was the outcome?

Task 2: Why was The Leveson Enquiry Necessary?

  1.  It looked at the relationship between the press and the public, including phone-hacking and other potentially illegal behaviour, and at the relationships between the press and the police and the press and politicians.
  2. But the Hacked Off campaign, which represents many alleged victims of phone-hacking, says voluntary self-regulation has failed and its said that the Leveson proposals are the way forward.
  3. The Free Speech Network, which represents many editors and publishers, is vigorously opposed to any state involvement in press regulation. It says the press exists to scrutinise those in positions of power, and it could not do that if those it was scrutinising had authority over it.

Task 3: Ross Barkley article by Kelvin MacKenzie

  • “There is something about the lack of reflection in his eyes which makes me certain not only are the lights not on, there is definitely nobody at home.”
  • “I get a similar feeling when seeing a gorilla at the zoo. The physique is magnificent but it’s the eyes that tell the story.”
  • “So it came as no surprise to me that the Everton star copped a nasty right-hander in a nightclub for allegedly eyeing up an attractive young lady who, as they say, was “spoken for”.

Task 4: Roy Greenslade on the IPSO

Greensalde thinks that the IPSO isnt effective, just like the PCC. Also that the government are turning a blind eye. The IPSO have there own guidelines and were not involved in the phone hacking scandal, therefore they shouldnt have the same regulations as the others.

The Guardian, who self reguate, are effectively like studios cutting there own material to get a 12A certificate. They are avioding the regualtion in place and doing there own.

Task 5: Hacked Off

Question: What is Hacked Off?

Question: When was Hacked Off established?

Question: What does Hacked Off do?

Media Concepts – Question 1(B)

Question 1(B) requires candidates to select one production and evaluate it in relation to a media concept.

You will focus on the main production.

You will focus on:

  • Genre
  • Narrative
  • Representation
  • Media Language

What is Genre?

A genre is a category of media that we can associate with a film, music video, music, televisoin etc. These are identified by codes and conventions within the media that we associate with the genres (ICONOGRAPHY– Audio and Visual Elements).

Audiences have expectations from a genre so we can the link it to/compare it towards other types of media we consume.

Producers want a specific genre and it makes their product more MARKETABLE.

SUB-GENRE: A genre within the category of another genre that is easy to link.

  • Slasher Horror
  • Stalker Horror
  • Psychopath Horror

HYBRID GENRE: A genre that is combined with a different genre.

  • Action Horror
  • Action Comedy
  • Comedy Romance (Rom-Com)

Fictional Films are usually categorised by setting, theme and mood.

Another way of categorising film genres is by reviewing your target audience.


“Genre creates expectations that condition our responses. Genre sets-up hopes and promises and brings pleasure if these are furfilled” – Warren Buckland

“Genre is a recurring type or category of text, as defined by structural and thematic criteria” – David Duff

PROTAGONISTS (Main Character) vs ANTAGONISTS (Standard Character)





Lesson Tasks

  1. Compile a list of 8-10 similarities and 8-10 differences between the BBFC, PCC and IPSO.
  2. Produce a powerpoint presentation on two newspapers of your choice: Discuss their history, political beliefs, target audience, how many writers do they have and/or have any celebrity writers, controversies, notable features etc.

1. Similarities

  • Oppertunity to reply and interact with the organisation, hand positive or constructive feedback and send in any complaints.
  • Discrimination is not tollerated in the Press Complaints Comission and is also not allowed in the form of the BBFC. These rules now need to be applied becuase we are more multicultural then ever in the UK, therefore they have to represent everyone.
  • All the organisations have public guidelines.
  • Both are reliant on the publics participation, although is a small figure that get to cooperate.
  • Children are protected by both the BBFC and the PCC as they should be. Certian scenes will not be allowed to be shown in films if they have displayed violence against children. Just like in PEGI also, games such as Grand Theft Auto are not allowed to feature children or schools so you can’t create any disasters that may be applied in real life.

1. Differences:

  • Obviously the biggest difference would be that the BBFC are producing a real picture film that has the ability for someone to see what is going on first hand; but a newspaper needs a creative mind to picture a scene for an incident. Like with a text message it can be taken out of context; but when watching a film you are handed the message but also with expression, meaning it’s easier to understand the situation.